Introduction

Every moment, many people begin to have the need to ensure that they lead healthy and a long lasting life that is free of infectious diseases such as those brought by the consumption of unsafe water. Instances of allowing the element of poison in the kind of water for drink pose great risk to the health of human beings. Human beings should exercise a lot of car in what they daily in their lives as they each have impact on the water in the environment they live in at large. For instance, there is a trend currently going on where each and every individual is developing the urge to ensure the conservation of the natural resources, especially the water based sources.

Determination of the quality of water entails various methods though the most profoundly used are the chemical monitoring and the biological monitoring cases. Chemical monitoring on its side offers good data that relates to what is taking place during the measurement of the sample. For the purpose of this laboratory experiment on the water quality and testing, the experiment will focus on the testing of the pH, temperature, turbidity, nitrates, phosphates and the dissolved oxygen. On the other hand, the biological monitoring case in water and quality testing may offer the long term scope of determination of the true picture of the quality of water. In such instances, the indicator organisms do show response to some specific conditions that have some consistency.

In relation to the so discussed aspects above on the urge to ensure the carrying out of test on water and its quality, it will be essential to human beings in helping them avoid getting infected with diseases brought by the consumption of unsafe water. In regard to this, this experiment will present a report that focuses on the determination and testing on the quality of water through its content.

Materials

  1. PH test kit
  2. Thermometer
  3. Turbidity test kit
  4. Dissolved oxygen test kit
  5. Nitrates test kit
  6. Phosphates test kit
  7. Waders
  8. Kick net
  9. Dip net
  10. White sorting pans
  11. Forceps
  12. 70% alcohol
  13. Vials
 

Method

  • Determination of PH, Temperature, and Turbidity

PH:

Fill the test tube (0230) to the 5.0 ml line with sample water.

Add 10 drops of reagent

Follow with capping and mixing of the content.

Insert test tube into Octet Comparator. Ensure that the comparator’s color is similar to that of the color under investigation. At this point, ensure that the position of the comparator is in between the operator and a light source. The instance would enable light to pass through the special light-diffusing screen in the back of the comparator. Never look at comparator against direct sunlight or an irregularly lighted background.

Temperature:

  1. Submerge the thermometer beneath the water for 60 seconds before reading.
  2. Record your answer in degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Determination of Turbidity

First, have a one full turbidity column that reaches the 50ml line with the water sample. In the case where the black shape of the test tube’s lower surface seems invisible when viewed through, drain a desired quantity of the test tube’s sample. The instance will in this case enable the test tube only get filled up to the 25ml benchmark line.

The second step is to ensure the filling of the second turbidity column with and an equivalent quantity of water to the sample under measurement though turbidity free. Hence, for best results during this experiment, distilled sample of water would be the best option as much as clear tap water may also serve as alternative. Elsewhere, this stage is the clear water tube part.

After assembling the test tubes in step one and two above, place them next to each other and observe their difference in clarity. In the event that the black shape shows some clarity in all the two tubes, then the conclusion would be that there is zero turbidity. However, if the black dot appears unclear in the sample, then the experiment should progress to step four below.

Step four in this case will entail shaking of the Standard Turbidity Reagent in a vigorous manner. To enhance the effective reaction of the reagent, stirring rod may also be an added advantage in stirring both the components of the tubes as it will facilitate the equal distribution of the particles. At the same time, closely monitor the quantity of turbidity by viewing the solution through the black shape. A case that will reveal the greater turbidity of the sample compared with that of the clear water will warrant the continuity in addition of the Standard Turbidity Reagent in a 0.5ml increasing manner to the clear water tube. During this time, continue mixing the contents upon each addition of the reagent until the turbidity matches that of the sample. Do not forget not to record the total amount of the Turbidity Reagent added at this juncture.

From the steps conducted above, the inference would be that every 0.5ml added to 50ml simple sample represents the 5 Jackson Turbidity Units (JTUs). At the end of the experiment, ensure the rinsing of both test tubes so as to leave then a good condition for the next experiment altogether.

  • Determination of Nitrates and Phosphates

Nitrate

First, fill the test tube bottle with a sample of water

Next, fill one test tube up to 2.5 ml mark with water that is from the sample bottle.

Third, perform the dilution process up to the 5ml mark with a Mixed Acid Reagent. After this, wait up to two minutes as the mixing and reaction takes place.

By using a 0.1 gram spoon, add another one level measure though should not be in an excessive manner of the Nitrate Reducing Agent. Consequently, cap and gently invert the sample in a tune of 50 to sixty minutes per minute. Thereafter, wait for at least ten minutes.

The next step is to insert the test tube into a Nitrate –N Comparator. Consequently, mat the sample color so that it colors the standard. After this, follow with the recording of the ppm Nitrate as Nitrate Nitrogen. Finally, multiply the ppm number by 4.4 to enhance its conversion

Total Phosphate:

The first step is to fill the test tube up to the 10ml mark with a sample of water.

Next step is to add 1.0ml of Phosphate Acid Reagent through the use of the 1.0ml pipet.

Follow with the capping and mixing process as the third procedure.

By use of 1.0 gram spoon, add one level measure of the Phosphate Reducing Agent

Fifth procedure is to ensure the capping and mixing until dissolution occurs completely. However, there should be an allowance for a time of five minutes for the process to take place effectively.

Finally remove the stopper from the test tube and place the Phosphate Comparator with Axial Reader. At the same time, ensure the matching of the color with that of the standard color. After the process, record the readings as ppm Orthophosphate.

  • Determination of Dissolved Oxygen

In this experiment, most part of it is appropriate for performing in the field for better results. The other remaining steps may find their way in the laboratory for completion.

The first of the steps will entail the filling of the water sampling bottle through submerging it and then allowing it to ensure its completing filling. At the same time, tap the sides of the bottle to enhance the dislodging of air bubbles. Similarly, replace the cap when the bottle is still emerged. During this time, there should be no any air trapped inside the bottle as it may have some effects on the measurement of the temperature.

Second, is to add eight drops of Manganous Sulfate Solution followed by the same number of drops of Alkaline Potassium Iodide Azide.

Cap and mix the contents and after that, allow the settling of the precipitates.

By use of the one gram spoon, add Sulfamic Acid or eight drops of sulfuric acid

Ensure the capping and mixing process until there is the dissolution of the precipitate. During this time, the sample is fixed and the contact that exists between the sample and the atmosphere will not have any impact on the result expected from the experiment.

After capping of the mixture, fill the filtration tube up to 20 ml mark with the fixed sample

Next step is to fill the titrator with Sodium Thiosulfate. However, to achieve this target, there should be depression of the plunger from the titrator so as to ensure the expulsion of any air that may be available. After this, ensure the insertion of the titrator that is available in the plug on the top of the Sodium Thiosulfate solution. The instance should follow with the inversion of the bottle and the slow withdrawal of the plunger up to the time when the bottom of the plunger lies opposite to the zero mark of the scale. If in any case, there is disappearance of small air bubbles in the titrator barrel, then ensure their expulsion through the part filling of the barrel and also pumping of the titration back into the reagent container. The process should take place repeatedly until all the bubble disappears.

The next step in this experiment is to ensure the insertion of the tip of titrator through the opening of the titration cap. Consequentially, depress the plunger so as to enable the flowing out of the titrating solution until there is a change in the yellow brown color to pale yellow type. Thereafter, in a gentle manner, ensure the swirling of the tube during the titration process so as to ensure the mixing of the contents that in this case should reach to the pale yellow color.

On addition of eight drops of Starch Indicator, the sample should assume a blue color. Consequently, follow with the titration process until there is the disappearance of the blue color leading to a colorless solution.

Finally ensure the recording of the final result where the titrator matches the scale and note its reading as ppm Dissolved Oxygen

Results

Record your sample of results as shown in the table below. The table for instance presents the measure of the various organisms collected. Hence, for the purpose of this experiment, richness will the different orders collected from each sample

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 3

May flies

5

1

2

Stone flies

5

1

2

Caddis flies

5

1

2

True flies

5

17

34

Discussion

The experiment entailed turbidity test which took place through the comparison of the a given measured amount of the sample with an identical amount of water that was not turbid. However, the same water free turbid had with it a given quantity of standardized reagent that was turbid. On the same note, the readings took place through looking through the liquid column contained in the black pie shape. Presence of turbidity in would indeed lead to the interference of the path of light passing through the column of the liquid. Similarly, small quantities of turbidity also have the tendency of causing blurring of the black pie shape found at the bottom of the tube. However, very large quantities of turbidity results to the more cloudiness which in the end makes it not easy for an individual to see the black pie shape when viewing through the column. An area to note also is that any other color that may be available should in this case get consideration at all. The instance is because the experiment only concentrates on the haziness or the cloudiness content of the sample in particular.

Conclusion

In most of the occasions, the index of pollution tolerance relies on the basis of the indicator organisms and also the levels of such tolerances. In this regard, the indicator organisms are those kind of organisms that have a lot of sensitiveness towards the changes in the water quality and also the response they show which determines the nature of the surrounding environment in general. Hence, either the presence or the absence of the indicator organisms in a given sample of water will obviously reveal something about the quality of water.

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